2% Silicon Dioxide
Betaine is a nutrient that plays an important role in the health of the cardiovascular system. Studies have suggested that betaine, along with other nutrients, helps to reduce potentially toxic levels of homocysteine (Hcy), a naturally occurring amino acid that can be harmful to blood vessels. Betaine functions closely with other nutrients - namely S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 - to break down Hcy and reduce toxic levels of this substance in the bloodstream.
Studies have suggested that betaine may help protect against fatty deposits in the liver, which can occur from chronic alcohol use, protein malnutrition, obesity, poorly controlled diabetes, and other causes. The results from several studies showed people with fatty liver disease that were given betaine supplements had improved liver function, reduced fat in the liver, and diminished abdominal pain. Betaine is also used to increase the concentration of acids in the stomach of those suffering from Hypochlorhydria (abnormally low levels of stomach acid).
Betaine is found in most microorganisms, plants, and marine animals. Its main physiologic functions are to protect cells under stress and as a source of methyl groups needed for many biochemical pathways. Betaine is also found naturally in many foods and is most highly concentrated in beets, spinach, grain, and shellfish.